Selasa, 23 Oktober 2012


Active Participle

Active participle merupakan kata kerja yang berujung – ing seperti having, pointing, walking dll.

 Apabila active participle didahului oleh „tobe‟ maka timbullah bentuk progressive.

 Apabila active participle (Ving) muncul di awal kalimat hendaknya diperhatikan dan diingant bahwa dalam betuk active participle tersebut sudah terkandung beberapa kata (arti).

Active participle kerap kali muncul setelah objek dari kata kerja: see, hear, smell, feel, watch, notice, listen to, look at, observe, keep, find, catch, Ieave, dimana berfungsi sebagai adjective atau adverb:


I felt the house shaking
I saw the boat sinking
He notice me leaving the house

Perhatikan contoh berikut!

1. Walking along the street, I met my old friend

Dalam kata walking di atas terkandung kata while (sedang atau sementara)
Kalimat di atas dapat ditulis dengan kalimat lain:
While I was walking along the street I met my old friend


2. Running down the stairs, she slipped and broke her leg

Kalimat diatas sama artinya dengan:
(While she was running down the stairs, she slipped and broke her leg)

3. Having studied English at Express, Fini went home with her friends.

Dalam kata „having‟ telah terkandung kata after (setelah).
Kalimat diatas sama artinya dengan:
After she had studied English at Express, Fini went home with her friends.

Having completed the test, the students handed in their papers and left the room.
Kalimat diatas sama artinya dengan:
After the student had completed the test, they handed in their papers and left the room.
Having beaten by foreman, Hallyfield was black and blue.
After he had been beaten by Foreman, Holloyfield was black and blue

4. Being ill, mother had her breakfast brought to her room.

Kata being mengandung pengertian because, since atau as (karena)
Kalimat di atas sama dengan:
Because/since/as my mother was ill, she had her breakfast brought to her room.

Being an outstanding student of our school, he has been offered a scholarship.
Kalimat di atas sama dengan:
(Because/since/as) he is an outstanding student, he has been offered a scholarship.


5. Being a foreigner, he needs a visa.

Kalimat di atas sama dengan:
Because/since/as he is a foreigner, he needs a visa.

6. Trying hard to win the beauty contest, Nita neglected all her school assignments.

Kalimat di atas sama dengan:
Because/since/as Nita tried hard to win the beauty contest, Nita neglected all her school assignments

7. Not wanting to take the risk of missing the train, we went to the station very early.

Kalimat di atas sama dengan:
Because/since/as we didn‟t want to take the risk of missing the train, we went to the station very early

8. Turning to the left, you will find his office

Active participle akan mempunyai arti if (jikalau) kalimat kedua dalam bentuk future
Kalimat diatas sama dengan
If you turn the left, you will find his office

9. Dalam active participle, pelaku pada kalimat active participle adalah sama denga pelaku pada kalimat ke dua.
Active participle dapat menggantikan adjective clause (dalam pola relative pronoun)
I found the baby who is crying = I found the baby crying
The girl who is reading the magazine is my sister = The girl reading the magazine is my sister

Passive Participle

Passive participle adalah kata kerja bentuk ke – 3. Apabila past participle di dahului oleh tobe maka timbullah pola passive form:

To be + V3

A table is made of wood
I was born in July, etc.

Fungsi Utama Passive Participle:
1. Untuk menggantikan anak kalimat pengganti kata sifat (relative clause) yang bersifat pasif.
The window which was broken by Edi has not been repaired yet.
Kalimat diatas sama dengan:
The window broken by Edy has not been repaired yet.

The students who were chosen to attend the student conference in the United States should be able to speak English fluently
Kalimat diatas sama dengan:
The students chosen to attend the student conference in the United States should be able to speak English fluently

2. Menyatakan sebab akibat
Because /since/as the city is surrounded by mountain, it has a cool climate.
Kalimat diatas sama dengan:
Surrounded by mountain, the city has a cool climate.

Because /since/as he was annoyed by the five – hour delay in the plane departure, Budi wrote an angry letter to the air line.
Kalimat diatas sama dengan:
Annoyed by the five hour delay in the plane departure, Lee wrote an angry letter to the air line.

11. After the students had finished doing the test, they left the room.
We can also say : ......... they left their room.
(A) Have finished 
(B) Finished 
(C) Being finished
(D) having finished
(E) finished

12. Because he tried hard to get a schoolarship, Ariel spent his time on studying.
We can also say : ............, Ariel spent his time on studying.
(A) Tried hard to get 
(B) Trying hard to get 
(C) Tries hard to get
(D) He tried to get
(E) in trying to get

13. ............, the professor asked his students to make a summary.
(A) having finished his lecture
(B) to finish his lecture
(C) have finished his lecture
(D) after he finishes his lecture
(E) He finishes his lecture

14. .............., she was able to achieve what she had dreamed of.
(A) carefully did she plan her future
(B) she planned her future carefully
(C) Her future was planned with care
(D) Her future was carefully planned
(E) having planned her future carefully.

15. ............... For five years in the marketing department, I feel well qualified to apply for the job of marketing manager advertised in newspaper.
(A) worked 
(B) having worked 
(C) have worked
(D) I have worked
(E) to work

16. .......... by the famous writer, the novel become best-seller.
(A) writing 
(B) written 
(C) to write
(D) in writing
(E) to be written

17. Not earning enough to support her children after her husband‟s death, .............
(A) the woman decided to work in Saudi Arabia
(B) a better-paid job is definitely required
(C) her children need to be trained to work
(D) special training is required to improve her skills
(E) her children should be put into an orphanage

18. Ornamented with beautiful traditional Balinese carving, ..............
(A) many foreign tourist are curious to visit the house
(B) the antiquity of the house is admired by many tourists
(C) tourists guides often bring their guests to visit the house
(D) the owner of the house allows tourist to visit and admire its beauty
(E) the house of a local resident becomes an object of tourism.

19. Living in a remmote mountainous area in West Java, ..............
(A) there is Badui people living in simplicity
(B) nature resources can be effectivelly conserved by the Badui people
(C) the Badui people are almost completely without by modern life
(D) how west Java province maintains Badui old way of life is amazing
(E) modern technology has hardly ever touched the Badui people

20. Noticing I had dropped my purse, ............
(A) the bus conductor called after me
(B) I was called after by the bus conductor
(C) it was the bus conductor who called after me
(D) there was the bus conductor calling after me
(E) the bus conductor was called after me

21. Having finished their exam, ................
(A) the books must returned to the library
(B) the library requires the books to be returned
(C) the library requires students to return the books
(D) the students must return the books to the library
(E) it is required that students return the books to the library

22. Trying to smuggle drugs into the country, the criminals were caught by customs official the airport. The underlined word mean: ........ to smuggle drugs into the country.
(A) When the criminals were trying
(B) Since the customs official have tried
(C) Becuase the customs official were trying
(D) Until the custom official were trying
(E) Before the smuggles tried

23. Covered by mud, the road made some car get stuck. The underlined words means: ............
(A) though the road was covered by mud
(B) since the road was covered by mud
(C) after that the road was covered by mud
(D) in order that the road was covered by mud
(E) before the was covered by mud

24. Being angry with his mother‟s remarks, He got up and left the house. The underlined words means : ................ with his mother‟s remark.
(A) because he was angry
(B) after he was angry
(C) although he was angry
(D) before he was angry
(E) in order that he was angry

25. Having developed a new method in medicine, the doctor was invited to give a speech in a seminar. 
The underlined words means: ..............
(A) because the doctor was developing a new method in medicine
(B) after the doctor had developed a new method in medicine
(C) although the doctor developed a new method in medicine
(D) the doctor was developing a new method in medicine
(E) whenever the doctor had developed a new method in medicine


Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to amuse,  entertain and to deals with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point
of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.

The basic purpose of narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers’ interest. However narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes/social opinions. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved.

General structure of narrative:

  • Orientation, introducing the participants and informing the time and the place.
  • Evaluation, a stepping back to evaluate the plight (it is optional).
  • Complication (problem), describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with.
  • Resolution, showing the way of participant to solve the crises, for better or for worse.
  • Re-orientation, it is optional.
  • Coda, it is optional.

Features of narrative:

  • Using processes verbs and adjectives.
  • Using linking verbs and linking words of time.
  • Using temporal conjunction and temporal circumstances.
  • Using material processes, behavioural and verbal processes.
  • Using relational processes and mental processes.
  • Using mental verbs and action verbs.
  • Focus on specific and usually individualized participants.
  • Some dialogue may include, using present or future.
  • Connectives, linking words to do with time.
  • Specific nouns, strong nouns have more specific meanings, e.g. ‘oak’ as opposed to Direct speeches may be used.
  • Use of the senses, where appropriate, the senses can be used to describe and develop the experiences, setting and character.
  • Using simple past tense.

Imagery of narrative:

  • Simile, a direct comparison, using likes or as or as though, e.g. the sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown.
  • Metaphor, an indirect or hidden comparison, e.g. she has a heart of stone. Onomatopoeia, a suggestion of sound through words, e.g. crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom, e.g. the tires whir on the road.
  • Personification, giving non-living things (inanimate) living characteristics, e.g. the steel beam clenched its muscles.
  • Rhetorical questions, often the author asks the audience questions, knowing of course there will be no direct answer. This is a way of involving the reader in the story at the outset, e.g. have you ever built a tree hut?
  • There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of both.
  • They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, and personal experience.

To help students plan for writing of narratives model, focusing on:

  • Plot, e.g. what is going to happen.
  • Setting, e.g. where and when will the story take place.
  • Characterization, e.g. who are the main characters and what do they look like.
  • Structure, e.g. how will the story begin, what will be the problem, how is the problem going to be resolved. Theme, e.g. what is the theme/message the writer is attempting to communicate.

Example of narrative:

Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

Ali Baba was such a poor man that he had only one shoe for his two feet. Even the mice in his house were hungry. One day, his wife said, “We have no food in the house. No rice. No potatoes. Go and collect leaves in the forest so that I can make a soup.”

Ali was a lazy man. He looked for leaves for about ten minutes and then he climbed a tree to sleep. He was afraid of wolves. When he woke up, he was surprised to see forty thieves on forty horses. They stopped in front of a big rock.

“Open Sesame!” shouted the leader. A door on the rock opened. The thieves carried sacks full of gold into the cave. When they had finished, the leader shouted. “Close Sesame!” and the door closed. As soon as the thieves had disappeared Ali Baba jumped down from the tree, said, “Open Sesame” and went into the cave.

There were shelves all around the walls. The shelves were full of sacks. And the sacks were full of gold. Ali took a sack home with him. Unfortunately, one of the thieves saw Ali’s footprints on the sand. He followed them to Ali’s home. He took out his knife and made a cross on the door.

“Now I shall know which house it is,” he said. He rode off to get the other thieves. But Ali had seen the thief. He and his wife took brooms and swept away the footprints. Then he made crosses on every door at the street. When the forty thieves arrived they had their knives between their teeth. But they couldn’t find either Ali or the gold. And Ali and his wife lived happily ever after.

Passive Voice

Passive Voice merupakan salah satu dari beberapa pola yang ada di dalam bahasa inggris yang memiliki arti ( - di) dalam penggunaannya. Bentuk ini mempunyai rumus sebagai berikut:

[ Be + V3 (past participle) ]

Mr. Rob wrote “The History of America”
“The History of America” was written by Mr. Rob

Lihat Contoh Di Bawah Ini

Simple Present:
 Aktif: Someone repairs the bicycle
 Pasif: The bicycle is repaired by someone

Present continuous:
 Aktif: Someone is repairing the bicycle
 Pasif: The bicycle is being repaired by someone

Present Perfect:
 Aktif: Someone has repaired the bicycle
 Pasif: The bicycle has been repaired by someone

Past simple:
 Aktif: Did john eat the food?
 Pasif: Was the food eaten by John?

Past Continuos:
 Aktif: Someone was repairing my bicycle when I arrived home
 Pasif: The bicycle was being repaired by someone when I arrived home

Past perfect:
 Aktif: Someone had repaired the bicycle
Center for International Language Development - UNISSULA Page 17
 Pasif: The bicycle had been repaired by someone

 Aktif: Someone will repair the bicycle
 Pasif: The bicycle will be repaired by someone
 Aktif: Someone can not repair the bicycle
 Pasif: The bicycle can not be repaired by someone

1. They are building a new ring road round the city. The passive from the above sentence is ......
A new ring road ...........
(A) Is built 
(B) be building 
(C) is beilng built
(D) Builds 
(E) was building

2. The editor edits the article.
The passive from the above sentence is „The article ............... by the editor.‟
(A) Edits 
(B) be editing 
(C) is edited
(D) Edited 
(E) is being edited

3. When we go to work, the baby sitter will look after our baby. We can also say that when we go to work, ............ by the baby sitter.
(A) our baby will be looking after
(B) our baby will be looked after
(C) our baby look after
(D) our baby looked after
(E) our baby is looking after

4. We have delivered the packages.
The passive form of the baove sentence is : the packages .......... by us
(A) Delivered 
(B) to be delivered
(C) Have been delivering 
(D) have to be delivered
(E) Have been delivered

5. Parents of the students of the International School made fierce protests because of their suddenly increased school fee.
The passive form of the above sentence is ....... because of their suddenly increased school fee.
(A) Fierce protests have been made by parents of the students of the international school.
(B) Fierce protests were made by parents of the students of the international school.
(C) Fierce protest made by parents of the students of the International School.
(D) Fierce protests will be made by parents of the students of the International School.
(E) Fierce protests are being made by parents of the students of the International School.

6. „Last night a thief broke into my brother‟s house‟
„Really? What ............ from the house?‟
(A) He took 
(B) was taking
(C) Was to take 
(D) was taken
(E) Was being taken

7. "What time will the delayed plane depart?‟
„They say that it .......... by airport officer soon.‟
(A) Will announce 
(B) announced
(C) Is to announce 
(D) will be announced
(E) To be announced

8. “Hasn‟t Anita submitted her report yet?”
“I dont think so. It .................”
(A) Be printing 
(B) Is printing 
(C) Being printed
(D) to be printing
(E) is being printed

9. The director wanted the orders .......... by sale department last week.
(A) were delivered 
(B) was delivered 
(C) to be delivered
(D) to deliver
(E) being delivered

10. The teacher always asks the homework ............. by the students at home.
(A) is made 
(B) is making 
(C) to make
(D) to be made
(E) being made


Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share with the others a real story of which the ending is funny to amuse the audience or readers.

General structure of spoof:
  • Orientation, the opening of the story which sets the scene. 
  • Events, the details of the events in the story.
  • Twist, the funny or unpredictable ending of the story.

Features of spoof:

  • Focus on people, animals or certain things.
  • Using action verb (material processes).
  • Using saying verb.
  • Using adverb of time and place.
  • Focus on temporal sequence.
  • Using simple past tense.

Example of spoof:

A Bumpy Flight

“This is your captain speaking. We have had a failure in one of our engines. There is no cause for alarm as we still have three engines left. Unfortunately this means that we will be one hour late.”

A short time later captain again spoke to the passengers. “There is no cause alarm, but we have just lost another engine. We will now be two hours late.”

When the captain spoke to the passengers for the third time, he again had bad news. “Ladies and gentlemen, I assure you that we are in no danger, but I must inform you that we have had another engine failure. This means that we will now be three hours late.”

Finally, the captain announced that the fourth engine had failed. One of the passengers turned to another passenger and said, “Oh no, that means we’ll be four hours late!”


Report is a text which presenting information about something. Its social function is to describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis.

Informative reports are written about living things like plants and non-living things like oceans. An information report is used when we talk and write about. When writing a description we only talk/write about one specific thing. 

General structure of report:

  • General classification, stating classification of general aspect of thing, such as animal, public place, plant, etc, which will be discussed in general. 
  • Description, tell what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of parts, qualities, if living; uses, if non-natural.
Features of report:

  • Introducing group or general aspect.
  • Using conditional logical connection, e.g. when, so, etc.
  • Using simple present tense.
  • No temporal sequence.
  • Nouns and noun phrases are used rather than personal pronouns. The use of personal pronouns is limited.
  • Some reports use technical or scientific terms.
  • Linking verbs are used.
  • Uses some action verbs, e.g. climb, eat, etc.
  • Uses adjective of quality, e.g. delicate whitish, etc.
  • Usually accompanied by photographs, diagrams, maps, etc.

Example of report:

Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is celebrated in late autumn. In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held.

In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.

Recounts (part. 1)

Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its social function is either to inform the purpose, to entertain or to retell the events to audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative. Types of recount:

  • Personal recount, these usually retell an event that the writer was personally involved in.
  • Factual recount, recording an incident, e.g. a science experiment.
  • Imaginative recount, writing an imaginary role and giving details of events. 
General structure of recount:

  • Orientation, provide the setting and introduces participants.
  • Events, tell what happened, in what sequence.
  • Re-orientation, closure of events (it is optional).
Features of recount:

  • Focus on personal participant, e.g. I, my friend, etc.
  • Using chronological connection, e.g. then, first, etc.
  • Using linking verb, e.g. was, saw, heard, etc.
  • Using action verb, e.g. look, go, change, etc.
  • The recount has a title, which usually summarizes the text.
  • Specific participants.
  • Details are selected to help the reader reconstruct the activity or incident (factual recount).
  • The ending may describe the outcome of the activity (factual recount).
  • Details of time, place and incident need to be clearly stated (factual recount).
  • Descriptive details may also be required to provide information (factual recount).
  • Includes personal thoughts/reactions (imaginative recount).
  • Using material processes.
  • Focusing on temporal sequences.
  • Describes events.
  • Using adverb and passive voice may be used.
  • Using simple past tense.
Example of recount:

When I was in the first grade of Primary School, I had a friend, Michelle. She was the friendliest and the most intelligent student in the class. We soon became very close to each other because we had a lot of things in common.

Now, we are in the second year. We are not in the same class anymore, but we spend a lot of time together. We study together, do some assignments and hang out for fun.

Friends are as valuable as diamonds. We do realize it and promise that we will remain good friends as long as we live.

Minggu, 21 Oktober 2012


Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

General structure of anecdote:
  • Abstract, retelling of an unusual incident.
  • Orientation, setting the scene and introduce the participants.
  • Crisis, provide details of unusual incident.
  • Incident, reaction of crisis.
  • Coda, reflection on or evaluation of the incident (it is optional).

Features of anecdote:

  • Using exclamation words, e.g. it’s awful, that’s great, that’s impossible, etc.
  • Using imperative, e.g. listen to, etc.
  • Using rhetorical question.
  • Using action verb.
  • Using saying verb and direct speeches.
  • Using conjunction of time, e.g. then, afterward, while, etc.
  • Using simple past tense.
Example of anecdote:


I am from a big family. I have two aunts and one uncle whose houses are so far from mine. I am the oldest child and have three brothers and one sister. I make many friends and love them very much. Everyday, after school, as village children, we gather together in our village’s playing field. In there, we can play football, play kites, play the “go back through the door” game, marbles game, and some other village children’s games. We are very closed friends.

One day, Thinky, my cousin, said, “Hi friends, you know that my father is a clever farmer. He had created scarecrow that made the birds never approach our paddy-field anymore. They just watched it from three miles away. They didn’t dare to pick even a grain of rice,” he boasted. “That’s great,” said one of my friends. “That’s nothing,” said Pinky, a big talk friend, too. “My father had created a so big-talk created a so big-dark scarecrow that the birds returned all of rice they had picked some days ago.”